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InterrogativesEdit

There are several determiners, pronouns, and adverbs which signal a question.

Cual is a determiner and a pronoun meaning "which" or "what":

  • Tu veni de cual pais? — What country do you come from?
  • Cual fenetras es rompeda? — Which windows are broken?
  • Cual pinta tu prefere? — Which paint do you prefer? (uncountable)
  • Cual tu gusta? – Which do you like?
  • Cual tu prefere, la rojas o la verdes? — Which do you prefer, the reds or the greens?
  • Cual libro tu leje? = Tu leje cual libro? — Which book are you reading? You are reading which book?

Ce (cual cosa) is a pronoun meaning "what", refering only to things:

  • Ce es en la caxa? — What is in the box?
  • Vos prefere ce? – You prefer what?
  • Ce es acel musica fea? = Acel musica fea es ce? — What is this ugly music? This ugly music is what?

Ci (cual person) is a pronoun meaning who or whom, refering only to persons:

  • Ci vole es un milionor? — Who wants to be a millionaire?
  • Tu vade a la sinema con ci? - You are going to the movies with whom?
  • Ci es tu autor prefereda? = Tu autor prefereda es ci? — Who is your prefered author? Your prefered author is who?
  • De ci es esta auto? = Esta auto es de ci? - Whose is this car? This car is whose?

Cuando (a cual tempo, en cual tempo) is an adverb meaning "when":

  • Cuando nos va come? — When are we going to eat?
  • Cuando tu dormi? = Tu dormi cuando? — When do you sleep? You sleep when?

Do (a cual loca, en cual loca) is an adverb meaning "where":

  • Do es la can? — Where's the dog?
  • Do es nos? = Nos es do? — Where are we? We are where?

Como (en cual modo) is an adverb meaning "how":

  • Como nos parla? — How do we speak?
  • Como tu conose me nom? — How do you know my name?
  • Nos parla como? = Como nos parla - We speak how? How do we speak?

Cuanto (cual cuantia) is a determiner and adverb meaning "how":

  • Cuanto casas es en tu strada? — How many houses are on your street?
  • Cuanto pan tu pote come? — How much bread can you eat?
  • Cuanto tu ia compra? — How many/much did you buy?
  • Cuanto la orolojo costa? — How much does the watch cost?
  • Cuanto tu desira esta torta? — How much do you want this cake?

Per ce (par cual causa, per cual razona, con cual intende) is an adverb meaning "why":

  • Per ce tu core? = Tu core per ce? — Why do you run? Why are you running?
  • Per ce Juan ia departe? = Juan ia departe per ce? – Why did John leave? John left why?

SubordinatorsEdit

There are several pronouns and adverbs which introduce subordinate clauses.

CualEdit

Cual is pronoun meaning "which" or "that"

It introduces relative clauses...

  • La casa cual me ia construi, es prosima. — The house that I built is nearby.
  • La casa en cual nos abita es tro peti. — The house in which we live is too small.
  • La superstisios cual me ia investiga es riable. — The superstitions that I have investigated are ridiculous
  • La poma cual cade de me saco es aora noncomable. – The apple which fell from my bag is now inedible.
  • Esta jus, cual Ana ia fa, ave un bon sabor. – This juice, which Anna made, has a good taste.
  • Me libro en cual me ia scrive se nom, es supra la table. — My book, in which I wrote her name, is on the table.
  • El pote salta a un metre alta, cual es surprendente. — He can jump a meter high, which is surprising.

And noun clauses...

  • Me ia oia cual tu ia dise. – I heard what you said.
  • Me pote divina cual el leje. — I can guess which one he's reading.

De ce (whose, of which) is clarified by adding se before the object possessed:

  • Me auto, de cual se motor es rompeda, es aora refusada.

CeEdit

Ce es a pronoun meaning "that" and refers only to things.

It is used to introduce a relative clause:

  • La libro ce me leje es tro longa. — The book that I'm reading is too long.
  • La auto ce ia veni de Italia es multe rapida. – The car that came from Italy is very fast.
  • La can, ce ave macias negra, ia morde la polisior. — The dog, who has black spots, bit the policeman.
  • La robot ce me ia construi no opera. – The robot I built doesn't work.

Note that cual is used instead of ce after prepositions.

It also introduces noun clauses:

  • Me ia oia ce tu ia dise.
  • Nos es surprendeda ce vos no parla como nos. – We are surprised that you do not speak like we do.
  • Me pensa ce tu nesesa un vacanse. – I think that you need a vacation.
  • Me pensa ce el es bela. — I think that she is beautiful.
  • Me pensa ce el pote salta a un metre alta.- I think that he can jump a meter high.
  • Es surprendente ce el pote salta un metre alta. — It is surprising that he can jump a meter high.

CiEdit

Ci is a pronoun meaning "who" or "whom". It is used only to refer to persons.

It introduces relative clauses:

  • Esta es la fem de ci me ia compra me auto. — This is the woman from whom I bought my car.
  • A, vide la patetas ci segue se madre! — Ah, look at the ducklings who are following their mother!
  • La om ci ia abita asi ia vade a Nu Iorc. — The man who lived here went to New York.
  • Me padre, ci es retirada, abita en Mexico. — My father, who is retired, lives in Mexico.
  • La fem ci me ama veni de Frans. — The woman (whom) I love comes from France.
  • La fem, de ci nos parla, labora a me ofisia. — The woman, of whom we speak, works at my office.

De ci (whose) is clarified by adding se before the object possessed:

  • La fem, de ci se sposo labora a me ofisia, es un cosinor eselente.
  • La fem, de ci tu conose se sposo, labora a me ofisia.
  • La fem de ci me ia oblida se nom, es nova a la porta.
  • La fem, de ci tu ia dona la letera a se sposo, es encantante.

And noun clauses:

  • Me conose ci ia dise esta. — I know who said that.
  • Ci ia dise esta, ia es noncoreta. — Those who said that was wrong.
  • Me conose el ci ia dise esta.

CuandoEdit

Cuando is an adverb meaning "when".

It can introduce relative clauses:

  • En la anio cuando me ia nase, la clima ia es multe calda. — In the year when (= in which) I was born, the weather was very hot.
  • Me no conose la ora cuando me va departe. - I don't know the hour at which I will depart.
  • El veni en Julio, cuando la clima es bon. - He comes in July, when the weather is good.

It also introduces adverbial clauses:

  • Cuando nos ariva, me va dormi. — [At the time] when we arrive, I will sleep.
  • El veni cuando la clima es bon. - He comes when the weather is good.
  • Me dormi cuando me pote. — I sleep when I can.
  • El ia scrive cuando se madre ia demanda. — He wrote when his mother asked.
  • Nos va canta ante cuando nos dansa. — We will sing before we dance.
  • Nos va dansa pos cuando nos canta. — We will dance after we sing.
  • Nos va dansa asta cuando nos adormi. — We will dance until we fall asleep.

And noun clauses:

  • Cuando me va departe, me no conose. — When I will depart, I don't know.
  • Me no conose cuando me va deparate. - I don't know when I will depart.

DoEdit

Do is an adverb meaning "where".

It can introduce relative clauses...

  • Me come en Paris, do me abita. - I eat in Paris, where I live.
  • Me vide la loca do tu es. - I see the place where you are.
  • En la pais do me ia nase, la clima es multe calda. — In the country where (= in which) I was born, the weather is very hot.
  • La polisior ia desinia un sirculo sirca do el ia trova la clave. — The police officer drew a circle around where she found the key.

And adverbial clauses:

  • El ia dormi do el sta. — He fell asleep where he stood.
  • Me veni de do tu ia visita me. — I'm coming from where you visited me.
  • El dise ce el es felis do el abita. — He says that he is happy where he lives.
  • Nos abita do la du rios encontra. — We live where the two rivers meet.
  • Me vole vade a do la aira es fresca e dulse - I want to go where the air is fresh and sweet.

And it can introduce noun clauses:

  • Me no sabe do nos vade. — I don't know where we're going.
  • Me vide do tu es. — I see where you are.
  • Me conose de do tu veni. — I know where you came from.

ComoEdit

Como is an adverb meaning "how".

It can introduce relative clauses...

  • La descrive ia difere multe de como la loca aspeta vera. — The description differed greatly from how the place really looks.
  • La manera como tu pasea es riable. — The manner in which you walk is ridiculous.

And adverbial clauses ("as", "in which", "in the same way that")...

  • Nos parla como nos pensa. — We speak in the same way that we think.
  • Me no ia es permiteda fa cosas como me desira. — I wasn't allowed to do things as I wanted.

And it can introduce noun clauses:

  • Me es aprendente como on pote fa esta. - I am learning how one does this.
  • Me no comprende como tu conose me nom. — I don't understand how you know my name.

CuantoEdit

Cuanto is an adverb meaning "as many as" or "as much as".

It can introduce adverbial clauses:

  • Prende la libros, cuanto tu vole. — Take the books, as many as you want.
  • Nos va aida cuanto nos pote. — We will help as much as we can.

It can also introduce noun clauses:

  • Me va esplica cuanto me comprende. — I will explain as much as I understand.
  • Me no ia crede el cuando el ia dise cuanto el ia es intereseda. — I didn't believe him when he said how much he was interested.

Per ce, car, afinEdit

Per ce is an adverb meaning "why".

It can be used to introduce relative clauses and noun clauses:

  • La fem ia demanda la razona per ce la fenetra es rompeda. — The woman asked why the the window was broken.
  • La fem ia demanda per ce la fenetra es rompeda. — The woman asked why the the window was broken.

The corresponding responses are adverbial clauses introduced by car ("because") and afin ("so that"):

  • Me labora afin me infantes pote come. — I work so that my children can eat.
  • Es calda car la sol brilia. — It is hot because the sun shines.
  • Me core afin la rinoseros no catura me. — I'm running so that the rhinos don't catch me.
  • Me no pote teme la can car el es multe peti. — I am not afraid of the dog, because it is very small.
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